What is LNG?
LNG is liquefied natural gas (methane) that has been cooled to an extremely cold temperature (-260° F/ -162.2° C). At standard atmospheric conditions, natural gas is a vapor, not to be confused with gasoline, which is a liquid.
How is LNG shipped?
Specially designed ships are used to transport LNG around the world. They have double hulls and are constructed of specialized materials that are capable of safely storing LNG at temperatures of -260° F/ -162.2° C.
Where do ships unload LNG?
Ships load/unload LNG at specially designed terminals where the LNG is pumped either from the ship to insulated storage tanks at the terminal or from the storage tanks at the terminal to the ship. Natural gas can be transported to the terminal via pipelines where it can be converted to LNG or LNG from the terminal can be converted to gas and transported via pipelines to where it is needed.
How is LNG stored?
LNG at the Corpus Christi Liquefaction Terminal will be stored in double-walled, insulated tanks that are designed to prevent any gas from escaping. In addition, each LNG tank will be contained within a second tank of reinforced concrete to ensure full containment in all circumstances.
Is LNG explosive?
In its liquid state, LNG is not explosive. When LNG is heated and becomes a gas, the gas is not explosive if it is unconfined. Natural gas is only flammable within a narrow range of concentrations in the air (5% to 15%). Less air does not contain enough oxygen to sustain a flame, while more air dilutes the gas too much for it to ignite.
How is public safety addressed?
In the event of a spill, LNG vapors will disperse with the prevailing wind. Cold LNG vapor will appear as a white cloud. To keep the public safe, flammable vapor (gas) dispersion exclusion zones are established for LNG facilities.
If LNG is spilled in the presence of a flame, a very localized fire will result. Since this fire would burn with intense heat, thermal exclusion zones are also established. Flammable vapor and thermal exclusion zones are determined to keep the public at a safe distance from LNG facilities.
How are LNG tankers and facilities being kept secure?
Security measures for land-based LNG facilities and onshore portions of marine terminals, are required to comply with U.S. Department of Transportation regulations. Examples of these requirements include security patrols, protective enclosures, lighting, monitoring equipment, and alternative power sources.
Interstate natural gas companies receive security updates and alerts on a regular basis from federal agencies, including the FBI. A Security Task Force has also been formed. FERC does not display Critical Energy Infrastructure Information on its website.